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Grammar

Learn the basics of Italian grammar, from indefinite articles and subject pronouns to parts of speech and the «passato remoto».
  1. Nouns (23)
  2. Pronouns (22)
  3. Verbs (60)
  4. Adverbs (8)
  5. Adjectives (6)
  6. Prepositions (10)
  7. Articles (11)
  8. Interrogatives (6)
  9. Conjunctions (5)
  10. Interjections (4)
  11. Linguistics (57)
  12. Online Italian Courses (5)
  13. Pen Pals / E-mail Lists (8)
  14. Teacher Resources (17)
  15. Tests / Quizzes (14)

An Italian Would Never Say That
You'll never sound like an Italian native if you persist in repeating linguistic "dead giveaways"—that is, grammatical mistakes, habits, or tics that always identifies a native English speaker regardless of how competent that person is in Italian.

Being Naive
Determined to finally speak Italian fluently, the author heads to Rome and is shocked at how little she knows. A trip to the supermarket introduces her to rapid-fire two-word exchanges instead of familiar classroom dialogs.

Beware False Friends in Italian
There are many types of Italian friends, for example: amici del cuore (close friends), amici fraterni (fraternal friends), and amici d'infanzia (childhood friends). One type of Italian friend to beware of, though, is the falso amico.

Business Italian: Writing a Formal Letter
Gent.li Sig.ri! Dealing with bureaucracy in your own country is challenging enough, so imagine the difficulty of writing a letter in Italian to request a copy of vital documents, contact long-lost relatives in Italy, or reserve a hotel room.

Counting in Italian: 1 - 100
How to count in Italian from one to one hundred. Includes a discussion of Italian cardinal numbers from 1 - 100, and links to workbook exercises.

Counting in Italian: 100 and Greater
How to count in Italian from one hundred and greater. Includes a discussion of Italian cardinal numbers 100 and greater, and links to workbook exercises.

Eavesdropping
Overhearing conversations, the author understands more than she should. Why was that Italian woman greeting her lover good evening at nine o'clock in the morning. And why hadn't he known she was in Rome?

Every Tom, Dick, and Sempronio
Every Tom, Dick, and Harry. Ever hear someone use that expression to indicate multiple unspecified people? In Italian, the analogous phrase is: ogni Tizio, Caio, e Sempronio.

Fearing Numbers
Avoiding, then confronting, and finally mastering numbers, Bonnie orders theater tickets over the phone. Will she have seats close to the stage, or will she be need binoculars to see the performance?

Finding My Bar
Learning to order coffee correctly, the author finally fits in, but not before conquering double consonants.

Fra Virgolette
Italian quotation marks (le virgolette) are sometimes treated as an afterthought in the classroom and in textbooks, but to English-speaking natives reading Italian newspapers, magazines, or books, it's fairly obvious that there are differences in both the symbols themselves and how they are used.

Getting Beautiful
Emboldened by her language successes and shocked by her shaggy reflection in the salon window, Bonnie decides to brave a haircut. Will the hairdresser slip clients in front of her? Will she sit wet-headed forever?

Getting Limoncello
Enjoying her last night in Rome, Bonnie receives a compliment and makes a promise to return to Italy. Only next time maybe she'll stay a long, long time and finally become fluent.

How Not To Learn Italian
There are ways to speak Italian quickly, and there are tips and tricks they don't teach in Italian language school. Conversely, there are methods and approaches that will slow down your progress and only prove frustrating and demotivating. You might have the best intentions, but here are ten sure-fire ways how not to learn Italian.

How To Ask Questions In Italian
Who is Carlo? Where is the train station? What time is it? Why do Italians talk with their hands? How do you make gnocchi? This How-To will help you ask all the right questions!

Immersing Myself
Shopping for lotion in her no-tourist neighborhood, Bonnie discovers the dangers of full-immersion. She becomes immersed in Italian, but not in the way her Italian teachers had in mind.

Italian Apostrophes
In Italian, the apostrophe (apostrofo) is generally used to indicate the dropping of the final vowel before the word that follows it.

Italian Capitalization
Many words that are capitalized in English are not capitalized in Italian. These include: the days of the week, the months of the year, proper adjectives, a few proper nouns, and titles such as Mr., Mrs., and Miss.

Italian Easier to Learn Than English?
Researchers recently studied Italian and British college students and found that the Italians read and process information faster, even when reading words from other languages.

Italian For Beginners
The most effective way to learn Italian is to start studying! Whether it's reading an Italian textbook, taking a language course at a university or in Italy, completing workbook exercises, listening to a tape or CD, or conversing with a native Italian speaker, any method is appropriate.

Italian Language Week: Italian Language in the Piazza
That's the theme chosen for the eighth annual Settimana della Lingua Italiana nel Mondo (Italian Language in the World Week), which will take place from October 20th to the 26th in Italy.

Italian Language Week: The Art of Words
That's the theme chosen for the second annual Settimana della Lingua Italiana nel Mondo. The initiative, inaugurated with much success in 2001 both in Italy and abroad, renews the commitment of Italian institutions to the promotion and diffusion of the Italian language and culture.

Italian Modifying Suffixes
Sometimes an Italian noun can be modified to express a particular quality without using a qualifying adjective. These nouns are created by taking the root of the noun and adding a suffix. Italian nouns formed this way are called i nomi alterati (altered, or modified, nouns).

Italian Ordinal Numbers
The Italian ordinal numbers correspond to English first, second, third, fourth, and so on. Italian ordinal numbers show the place in a sequence or in a numbered series.

Italian Parts of Speech
For many Italian language speakers—even for those whom Italian is their madrelingua—the phrase parti del discorso might seem foreign. English speakers know the concept as "parts of speech," but it's probably a term vaguely remembered from grade school grammar. By tradition, grammarians recognize nine parts of speech in Italian.

Italian Italics Rules
The use of italics in Italian is governed by certain rules and conventions.

Italy Declares War on Officialese
Italy has declared war on officialese, vowing to simplify the way the state communicates with its citizens. A project called Chiaro! aims to rid the language used in bureaucratic texts of complex clauses and confusing terms.

La D Eufonica
In the Italian language la d eufonica is an euphonic phenomenon, in both spoken and written Italian, in which the letter d is appended to the words a (to, at, in), e (and), and o (or) when the following word begins with a vowel.

Learn Italian Again
If you've decided to learn Italian again after years of inactivity, think of it like restarting a workout program to get back into shape. Review the fundamentals first to reactivate your linguistic muscles, and commit to practicing Italian as often as possible to increase your word power.

Learning To Chat
Ignoring her embarrassing first attempts, the author seizes the chance to talk to her neighbors, and in the process learns everything she ever wanted to know about the weather in Rome.

Learning To Speak Italian in Italy
Bonnie Smetts first fell in love with Italian when she decided to take a few classes before visiting a friend who’d moved to Umbria. Five years later, she’s studied all the grammar, read stacks of classics, and participated in myriad conversation groups. Read all about one woman’s twelve-part adventure in fluency.

Love Those Romance Languages
What comes to mind when you hear the word romance? Champagne and chocolates, candle-lit dinners, soft music, and Valentine's Day. Not many people will think Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese. So what are Romance languages and why is Italian part of this group?

Making Hamburgers
Thinking she has figured out how to shop in the outdoor market, the author ends up with a surprise. When Bonnie discovers that she's actually bought ground meat and buns, she makes hamburgers—not what she expected to be eating in Italy.

(Not) Learning Italian
Struggling to understand Italian as spoken in Rome, Bonnie makes mistakes and learns a new language. Little did she know that the Roman dialect chews up familiar words and spits out new ones.

Online Italian Language Help
Even though Dante isn't alive today to answer email about Italian grammar, usage, and style, there are practical alternatives that can be every bit as authoritative and offer realtime assistance to master the Italian language.

Possiamo Darci Del Tu? (Part I)
Usage of the formal and informal Italian subject pronouns tu, voi, Lei, and Loro.

Possiamo Darci Del Tu? (Part II)
Historical background on the courteous form of address in Italian.

Taking A Tour
Feeling more confident in her Italian, Bonnie is embarrassed by mistaking Spanish for Italian. Down in the Roman catacombs, she discovers that she's joined a Spanish-speaking tour group and can't decide which language to respond in.

Ten Ways to Improve Your Italian
Take a class in Italian language, and you'll review definite articles, direct object pronouns, and prepositions. But at a certain point, you'll want to learn some shortcuts and quick pointers that will supercharge your lessons.

Ten Ways to Speak Italian Quickly
We live in an era of E–ZPass highway lanes, instant messaging, and microwave pizza. Even language instructors promise that you can learn Italian in just one weekend! In the spirit of these hyperactive times, then, here are ten great ways to speak Italian quickly and effectively while divertendoti.

The Best Way To Learn Italian
The secret to learning Italian? Practice, practice, practice. Any method is appropriate, whether it's reading an Italian textbook, taking a language course at a university or local language school, or conversing with a native Italian speaker.

The Complete Idiot's Guide to Learning Italian
What was already a comprehensive approach to learning la bella lingua has now become an even more exhaustive resource with new and exciting features that will enrich your Italian language learning experience and motivate you in unimaginable ways.

Think Like An Italian, Speak Like An Italian
If you want to learn Italian, forget your native tongue. If you want to achieve competency in Italian, you must think like an Italian—and that means getting rid of the helpers that are really hindrances and standing on your own two (linguistic) feet.

Top 10 Italian Grammar and Vocabulary Guides
There are Italian language learning materials for all levels of proficiency. Here is a list of recommended study materials such as grammar books, vocabulary phrase books, CDs, and tapes to help you improve your language skills.

Top 10 Italian Literature and Stories About Italy
There are a number of Italian texts, both classic and contemporary, that are must-reads for anyone interested in the history, culture, and language of Italy. Whether it's a trip to hell and back, a year's worth of love poems, or ribald, coarse humor during the plague, there's a tale for everyone.

Top 10 Myths About Learning Italian
Do you want to learn Italian, or do you want to spend your time coming up with excuses for why you can't learn Italian? Like other self-improvement activities you can convince yourself with a multitude of excuses why you can't pronounce Italian words or conjugate Italian verbs, or you can use that time and energy to learn Italian.

Una Pizza Grande o Una Grande Pizza?
Adjectives in Italian: form, agreement, and position.

Why Learn Italian?
No matter what your motivation--the opportunity to work overseas, cultural exchange in a land steeped in history and culture, researching your genealogy, or studying other topics such as Italian literature or art history--you can discover new worlds when learning Italian.

Xke No-ing? Or Connecting With Friends
Wanting a social life, Bonnie struggles to master her cell phone and text messaging in Italian. It seems as if SMS is the new way of writing and communicating in Italian.

Forgotten Italian Subject Pronouns
Usually one of the first Italian language lessons that beginners study is Italian subject pronouns. Too often, though, there's a whole subset of Italian subject pronouns that's given scant attention.

Italian Articles
In Italian the article (articolo) is a variable part of speech that precedes the noun and agrees with it in gender and number.

Italian Conjunctions
Italian conjunctions (congiunzioni) are invariable words that combine two or more words in a sentence or two or more clauses in a phrase.

List of Italian Conjunctions
A list of Italian conjunctions, from a meno che to tuttavia.

Italian Coordinating Conjunctions
Italian coordinating conjunctions (congiunzioni coordinative) combine two elements of the same period or two independent clauses together.

Learning Italian Italian
There is no secret, no Rosetta Stone, no silver bullet, when it comes to learning the Italian language. You have to listen and repeat ad nauseum.

Italian Subordinating Conjunctions
Italian subordinating conjunctions (congiunzioni subordinative) join a dependent clause to another clause—called the principal or independent clause—which it modifies, completes, or clarifies its meaning.

Multipurpose Italian Conjunctions
Multipurpose conjunctions (congiunzioni polivalenti) are those conjunctions that may have different meanings. In Italian, the conjunctions che, come, mentre, perché, quando, and se may have more than one grammatical function and thus can be used in different ways.

Italian Adverbs
Italian adverbs (avverbi) are used to modify or clarify the meaning of other parts of speech.

Italian Adverbs of Place
Italian adverbs of place (avverbi di luogo) specify the location of an object in space, its position relative to the interlocutors, or the place where the action takes place.

Italian Adverbs of Quantity
Italian adverbs of quantity (avverbi di quantità) indicate a non-specific, indefinite quantity or a measure.

Italian Adverbs of Time
Italian adverbs of time (avverbi di tempo) specify the period of time in which the action takes place.

Italian Definite Articles
In Italian, the definite article (articolo determinativo) is placed before the noun to indicate a precise, quantifiable object or person.

Italian Definite Article Forms
The Italian definite article takes a few different forms (including il, i, lo, l', gli, la, l', le) depending on the noun it precedes.

Italian Indefinite Articles
In Italian, the indefinite article (articolo indeterminativo) is placed before the noun to indicate a generic, uncountable object or person.

Italian Indefinite Article Forms
The Italian indefinite article takes a few different forms (including un, uno, una, and un') depending on the noun it precedes.

Italian Partitive Articles
In Italian, the partitive article (articolo partitivo) is used to indicate imprecise or approximate quantities.

Partitive Articles in Italian
The articulated forms of the preposition di can also be used as partitive articles. In this case they function to indicate a part or an undetermined quantity.

Use of the Definite Article With Italian Proper Nouns
In Italian, proper nouns usually do not require the article. However, proper nouns take the article when used in a metaphorical sense.

Types of Italian Nouns
In Italian nouns (nomi) are divided into various categories. The most common classification groups are: concrete, abstract, common, proper, singular, and collective.

Omitting the Italian Article
The Italian article is omitted in a variety of instances, mostly in particular kinds of expressions.

Italian Degree of Comparison Adjectives
In Italian, degree of comparison adjectives (gradi dell'aggettivo) are used to compare people, places, or things.

Italian Superlative Ending in -issimo
The suffix -issimo is one of the most common means of intensification in Italian, but its use is not as simple as it might appear. In fact, the use of this suffix has a number of limitations.

Italian Demonstrative Pronouns
Italian demonstrative pronouns (pronomi dimostrativi) indicate the position relative to the speaker, listener, or both.

Italian Indefinite Pronouns
Italian indefinite pronouns (pronomi indefiniti) refer in general (rather than specific) terms to persons, places, or things without specifying the noun that they replace.

Italian Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns (pronomi interrogativi) are used to introduce a question. They are: chi?, che?, che cosa?, quale?, and quanto?

Italian Interrogative Pronouns
Italian interrogative pronouns (pronomi interrogativi) are used in both direct and indirect interrogative sentences to formulate questions.

Italian Reflexive Pronouns
Understanding Italian reflexive pronouns (pronomi riflessivi), including usage and examples. Includes workbook exercises on Italian reflexive pronouns with answer key.

Italian Demonstrative Pronouns
In Italian, demonstrative pronouns (pronomi dimostrativi) substitute for nouns and other parts of speech in a sentence.

Italian Personal Pronouns
In Italian, personal pronouns (pronomi personali) are pronouns used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. There are three forms in the singular and three forms in the plural.

Italian Relative Pronouns
In Italian, relative pronouns (pronomi relativi), in addition to substituting for a noun, relate two propositions.

Italian Mixed Relative Pronouns
In Italian, mixed relative pronouns (pronomi relativi misti), which can function as either demonstrative or indefinite pronouns or as relative pronouns, connect two phrases.

Italian Possessive Pronouns
In Italian, possessive pronouns (pronomi possessivi) are used to replace a noun modified by a possessive adjective. A possessive pronoun must agree with the noun it replaces in gender and number.

Italian Nouns
Italian nouns

Gender of Italian Nouns
In Italian, the gender (genere) of a noun can be male or female. Foreign nouns, when used in Italian, usually keep the same gender as the language of origin.

Using Italian Personal Pronouns
Italian personal pronouns, which replace nouns, are used in a variety of instances. Examples of Italian personal pronouns (pronomi personali) include io, tu, egli, and ella in the singular, and noi, voi, essi, and esse in the plural.

Italian Nouns With Irregular Gender
Italian Nouns With Irregular Gender

Invariable Italian Nouns
Italian nouns that keep the same form in the plural as in the singular are called nomi invariabili (invariable nouns).

Italian Nouns Missing Either the Singular or the Plural Form
Certain Italian nouns only have a singular form, and others only have a plural form. For this reason, they are called nomi difettivi (defective nouns).

Italian Prepositions
In Italian, a preposition (preposizione) is an invariable part of speech that links words and phrases. It specifies a reciprocal relationship and the syntactical function of the word, phrase or sentence that follows it.

Italian Preposition A
In Italian, the preposition a expresses the sense of direction and has a wide range of uses.

Italian Preposition Con
The Italian preposition con expresses the concept of participation or union.

Italian Preposition Da
The Italian preposition da means "from, since, at." It can also indicate either location or movement to a place.

Italian Preposition Di
In Italian, the preposition di expresses the meaning of "belonging to someone or something." This ownership can translate into a wide variety of specificity, and indicate origin or provenance, kinship, material, quality, and comparisons.

Italian Preposition In
In Italian, the preposition in expresses the sense of sharing a place, either in time or space, and can also indicate an encounter with someone or something.

Italian Preposition Su
The Italian preposition su generally expresses the concept of being above (or on top of) or indicates proximity or approximation.

Italian Prepositions Tra and Fra
The Italian prepositions tra and fra indicate the concept of an intermediate position (not necessarily central) with respect to two or more elements, especially in time and space.

Italian Improper Prepositions
Italian improper prepositions (preposizioni improprie) are adverbs, adjectives, verbs, or phrases used as prepositions.

Guida all'Apprendimento della Nostra Lingua
Advanced guide to grammar, usage, and style in Italian.

ILUSS Grammar
Online grammatical lessons arranged by level, part of the Italian Language Update School Service.

La Corrispondenza Italiana
How to write a letter in Italian. Includes labeled examples of personal, professional, and business correspondance as well as instructions on how to address an envelope, common abbreviations, and a comprehensive list of phrases and sayings for many occasions. [in Italian]

Piccolo Manuale di Stile
Detailed style guide to the rules and regulations for writing a formal paper or tesi di laurea in Italian, including formatting bibliography entries and citations. [in Italian]

Syllabos
Articles on linguistics, grammar tips, a list of online dictionaries, and other resources. For Italian language learners, those interested in Italian linguistics, translators, and interpreters. [in Italian and English]

Italian Preposition Per
Italian preposition per

italian capitalization rules
Italian capitalization rules.

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