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Italian Language Lessons
Grammar, spelling, and usage

Italian Subject Pronouns
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In modern Italian he, she, and they are usually expressed by lui, lei, and loro, respectively. (Egli, ella, essi, and esse are used more in written Italian than in the spoken language. Esso and essa are seldom used.)

Remember that tu and its plural form voi are used in addressing members of the family, peers, children, close friends, and animals. In all other cases, Lei and its plural Loro are used. Note that Lei and Loro always take, respectively, the third person singular and the third person plural of the verb.

Ascolti, Luisa? (Are you listening, Luisa?)
Ascoltate, ragazzi? (Are you listening, boys?)
Ascolta Lei, signorina Rossi? (Are you listening, Miss Rossi?)
Ascoltano Loro signorine? (Are you listening, young ladies?)

tuyou (familiar)
lui (egli/esso)he
lei (ella/essa)she
Leiyou (formal)
voiyou (familiar)
loro (essi)they (m.)
loro (esse)they (f.)
Loroyou (formal)

Since the endings of conjugated verb forms indicate person and number, subject pronouns may be omitted in Italian except when necessary: (1) for clarity, (2) when modified by anche (also), or (3) when emphasis or contrast is desired. It and they referring to things are almost never used in Italian and need not be translated.

Italian Language Study Resources
Language Lessons: Italian grammar, spelling, and usage.
Audio Phrasebook: Improve your pronunciation and build your vocabulary.
Workbook Exercises: Worksheets, drills, activities, and review.
Buon Divertimento: Italian jokes, riddles, and puns.
Italian Verbs: Formation, moods, tenses, and table of conjugations.
Study Guides: Challenge your skills and test your knowledge of various topics.
Audio Lab: Word of the day, survival phrases, ABC's, numbers, and conversation.


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