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Choosing The Auxiliary Verb in Italian

Verbi Ausiliari in Italian


In Italian, an auxiliary verb—either avere or essere—is used whenever forming compound tenses. The auxiliary (or helping) verb, in combination with another, gives a particular meaning to the conjugated verb form. For example, compound tenses such as the passato prossimo are formed with the present indicative of the auxiliary verb avere or essere and the past participle (participio passato).

When forming the passato prossimo, which auxiliary verb should be used—avere or essere? How do you decide?

Transitive Verbs Take Avere
Transitive verbs are those that take a direct object. For instance:

Io ho mangiato una pera. (I ate a pear.)
Loro hanno già studiato la lezione. (They already studied the lesson.)
Non ho mai visto Genova. (I've never visited Genoa.)

The compound tense of a transitive verb is formed with the present indicative of the auxiliary verb avere and the past participle (participio passato). The past participle is invariable and ends in -ato, -uto, or -ito. In phrases with a transitive verb, the direct object of the verb may be expressed explicitly or implied. For example: Io ho mangiato tardi. (I ate late.)

Intransitive Verbs Take Essere
Simply put, intransitive verbs are those that do not take a direct object. These verbs usually express movement or a state of being. The auxiliary verb essere plus the past participle is used to form the passato prossimo and other compounds of almost all intransitive verbs (and the past participle must agree in number and gender with the subject.) The table below contains conjugations of arrivare, crescere, and partire in the passato prossimo.


iosono arrivato(-a)sono cresciuto(-a)sono partito(-a)
tusei arrivato(-a)sei cresciuto(-a)sei partito(-a)
lui/lei/Leiè arrivato(-a)è cresciuto(-a)è partito(-a)
noisiamo arrivati(-e)siamo cresciuti(-e)siamo partiti(-e)
voisiete arrivati(-e)siete cresciuti(-e)siete partiti(-e)
loro/Lorosono arrivati(-e)sono cresciuti(-e)sono partiti(-e)
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